Answer in Organic Chemistry for 250300183747 #120297
1) The components of the mixtures usually have different boiling points. Due to this, they can be separated by converting the mixture into a gaseous state and collecting the components according to their boiling points. Example of application in industry – primary oil refining. The primary end-products produced in petroleum refining may be grouped into four categories: light distillates(Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline), middle distillates(kerosene and diesel fuels), heavy distillates (heavy fuel oils, wax, lubricating oils, asphalt) and others.
2) Excess of (S)-2-butanol =100% * 5.4 / 13.5 = 40%, so % (S)-2-butanol = (% excess of (S)-2-butanol + 1)/2 = (0.4+1)/2 = 0.7. We have a mixture of 70% (S)-2-butanol and 30% (R)-2-butanol.
3) Bromination of alkanes by heating or lighting takes place by a radical mechanism: